CaptionAn Indian army officer. The dispute between India and Pakistan over claims to the mountainous northern region of Kashmir has continued for more than 50 years, and has at least twice led to war between the two nuclear powers. The area is controlled by India, but has a 60 per cent Muslim majority. Since 1989, in addition to the demands of Delhi and Islamabad, several other separatist groups have pursued rival claims to the territory, and Muslim insurgency has been on the increase. Cross-border firing and separatist militancy have left a death toll running into tens of thousands. Towards the end of 2004, India and Pakistan appeared to reach some rapprochement over Pakistan, and tensions eased.