CaptionSurvivors wait for a helicopter to evacuate them from a field hospital, at the epicenter of the October 8 quake in the Kashmir region near the India-Pakistan border. Helicopters played a crucial relief role in inaccessible areas, but struggled to keep up with the demand. The earthquake measured 7.6 on the Richter scale. Over 73,000 people in Pakistan were killed and around three million made homeless, with another 1,400 deaths in Indian-administered Kashmir. Many roads were so damaged by the quake that they were impassable for months. Accusations were leveled at both the Pakistani and the Indian governments for a disorganized early response to the disaster, and at Western nations for slowness in coming forward with financial aid. Eventually relief efforts did become more coordinated. International donors eventually pledged some US$ 5.4 billion towards recovery, and India and Pakistan cooperated in unprecendented ways in territory that the two nations had long held in dispute.